In many of my long training runs I not only experimented with fueling during runs as training for marathons, but also because given the scope of the run I needed to take in that fuel.
I have tried a wide range of fueling options, as recommended by various sources, and found that all have their particular advantages and disadvantages.
Ultimately, in a long distance race I prefer to drink Gatorade if they have it on course. Barring that (e.g. if they use a no-calorie sports drink like Nuun), I’ll bring Clif Shot Bloks. For anything shorter than 10 miles I’ll tough it out and drink water… maybe whatever sports drink they have if I feel like it.
But again, I’ve tried a variety of different fueling sources during workouts. Here’s my observed advantages and disadvantages for each:
Bringing small snacks (e.g.a protein bar or granola bar)
Advantages: Something like a protein or granola bar feels a lot more satisfying than other fuel sources while running. It’s usually closer to actual food! They often contain protein and fat, which are more satiating.
Disadvantages: Small snacks can make a mess, or worse yet fall out of your hands onto the ground more easily. Because they must be eaten, they can pose a choking risk, or to lesser extent make it hard to breathe when you try to eat them while running. Getting them out of the package can be more of a pain than the quicker consumption afforded by drinks and gels.
Verdict: While I’m never against bringing a snack with me, it’s something I won’t go out of my way to do. I definitely won’t turn down a protein bar for the road before or after a run, however.
I have experimented with different kinds of syrups, such as honey and raw agave, mostly going with raw agave due to its viscosity making it easier to pour from a gel flask. I would consume these intermittently throughout the run.
Advantages: They are a dense form of quickly digested sugar carbohydrate, which provides much-needed glycogen during a long run. A single ounce can contain about 100 calories (25g) of pure sugar. This buys your muscles time and distance before exhausting glycogen stores.
Disadvantages: These sugars are simple and the body may only use this fuel to maintain bodily functions rather than fuel your lower body muscles. Both are sticky and can create a mess even if you do not spill. Honey in particular is very viscous and may flow too slowly from a container during a run to be useful. Practically, you need a container to dispense these syrups such as a gel flask, and these typically only hold 5-6 ounces. For very long runs, this might not be enough fuel.
Verdict: I used raw agave on long runs for a while, but I’m probably done with using it as a long run fuel source. Thankfully I’ve built up the endurance to finish 15-20 milers without fuel, so carrying fuel for these runs is no longer necessary like before.
The most commonly used form of fuel in long distance races. These are typically sold in single use disposable 100 calorie packs.
Advantages: Unlike syrups and other sugars, gels are specifically engineered to quickly provide glycogen for your muscles rather than just general function. Gels typically come in single use packets and are more easily portable.
Disadvantages: Gels taste nasty (don’t @ me about the flavors having gotten better, runners. A better tasting version of motor oil still tastes like motor oil). Though portable, the gels are still messy, possibly more so than syrups. Gels are even more viscous, making it harder to extract from the package and consume. You typically need to wash them down with a lot of water. You also have to find a way to dispose of the used packets. In races, runners tend to do the worst: Dropping used packets on the ground behind them, for other runners to slip on. This alone turns me off of them, but the other stuff doesn’t help either.
Verdict: Hell no. As I say to people when Papa John’s pizza arrives, how do you people eat this crap?
The classic sugar and electrolyte solution, in a bottle or mixed in a container of varying size. You drink it while working out and it replenishes you.
Advantages: Drinking Gatorade kills two birds with one stone, hydrating you with water and providing glycogen-rich calories. When running races, most race hosts provide Gatorade free of charge just as they do water. Gatorade is also a lot more widely available at stores, usually at a cheap price. If you’re lucky stores sell bottles out of a refrigerated case, making it doubly refreshing!
Disadvantages: Gatorade is liquid, meaning it has more weight and takes up more volume than other fueling options. A typical bottle of Gatorade can weigh anywhere from 1-2 pounds, which slows you down during running until you drink it and it’s in you.
Also, Gatorade can only carry so many calories: A 32 oz bottle only has about 240ish calories. If you need 500+ calories in fuel for something like a marathon, that’s not going to cut it. You simply can’t carry that much Gatorade.
If the Gatorade mixed in person instead of bought factory-made (Hint: The Gatorade served at races is often mixed on-site), there’s a chance it may not be mixed correctly and you may not get the full caloric benefit… defeating a key purpose of drinking it.
If it’s hot outside, liquid warms. Gatorade tastes like a nasty sugar soup when it’s warm.
Verdict: I find Gatorade terrific and if it was healthy to do so I’d drink a ton of it after workouts (Hint: You’re supposed to drink it while working out, not after; it’s literally sugar water). If carrying it wasn’t too much of a burden I’d carry a bottle with me on every long or intense workout.
But if I want it for a long run I’ll have to find a way to get some during the run, then down it before continuing. Or pay someone to carry it behind me while riding a bike. (Hint: I’m currently NOT accepting applications for this role)
Clif Shot Bloks. Honey Stingers. These are gummy like things you chew before or during a workout to provide the same sort of sugar-loaded energy as gels or Gatorade. A typical small pack contains 150-200 calories, and some versions contain caffeine.
Advantages: Like gels and Gatorade, chews are engineered to digest quickly for use as muscular glycogen, and are a perfect fuel for races and key runs. A typical package provides 150-200 calories of workout-friendly sugars in an easily chewable pack. The packs are esaily portable, and in my experience they do charge up your workout quickly once ingested… even the non-caffeinated versions.
Disadvantages: Compared to other fuel options chews are not cheap: A typical pack of 6 can cost $2.50-3.00.
As with other food, eating chews during a run can make it hard to breathe.
Also, if you need more than one 150-200 calorie pack (which I certainly do in marathons and other similar long runs), they take up considerable space once you carry more than 2-3 of them. When I attempted Vancouver I had to wear two fanny packs, with one holding just my Clif Shot Bloks for the race.
Because chews are a solid (albeit soft) food, they can be a choking hazard if consumed while running. They don’t always go down easy so you sometimes need to chase them with water. I abhor stopping a race completely just to eat them.
Verdict: For workouts, chews aren’t at all necessary. I won’t consume them for any race shorter than a marathon. Whether I pack them for a marathon depends on what I feel my overall glycogen needs will be. The more aggressively I plan to run the race, the more glycogen I will need. And the less glycogen provided on course (e.g. if a race provides calorie-free energy drinks instead of Gatorade), the more likely I will go with Clif Shot Bloks as my fuel.
Eating a small meal ahead of time
Whenever I have time, on the morning of a race or a long run I try to have a quick breakfast sandwich with a shot of espresso before heading to the race site.
Advantages: This not only sates me but effectively pre-loads my bloodstream with some ready-to-use fat and glycogen, boosting my capabilities, saving the glycogen in my muscles to some extent. A bonk becomes quite unlikely when I eat right before a run.
Disadvantages: I don’t always have the time, space or means to prepare/eat a small meal before a run. In some cases, I may need to take a crap shortly after a meal… not ideal during a run! There’s some prep (that I won’t get into) the day prior I can do to avoid the possibility of this, but it’s still an unwelcome possibility.
Verdict: I always, always try to eat a meal a couple hours before a race. On occasion if there’s time and space I’ll try and eat breakfast before a morning long run. I’ll definitely make sure to eat 3ish hours beforehand if a hard/long workout takes place in the afternoon. But I just did my last 18+ miler early in the morning with no food in me and none taken during the run. So outside of races it’s certainly not necessary.
Breaking the run in half and then eating at halftime
I’ve done this more recently. Basically, I go on a long run, but at some point past the halfway mark I stop for a bit to eat and something to drink, chill out a bit, then resume shortly after finishing the meal.
Advantages: This can help ease the hard work of a long run, by breaking the run into two shorter runs. The fuel from a meal definitely feels welcome after several miles, and comes in handy for those last miles. It can help get a head start on recovery from the initial part of the run. Also, I get to take a rest.
Disadvantages: As mentioned before, my bowels may act up with food in the tank, especially if I resume running right after eating. It’s also possible that I cool down to the point where I need to once again warm up or ease into the 2nd half of the run. I’ve typically felt better after stopping (I tend to handle working out right after eating fairly well), but sometimes I do come out of the meal creaky.
Verdict: If I’m training for a longer race, especially if I’m late in the training cycle… breaking up the long run might compromise the value of that long run. I mitigate this by only stopping after having run for 2.0-2.5 hours, which is the back wall recommended for most long runs anyway. Extending the run after that isn’t a problem with a break. Otherwise, I have no problem breaking up a long run with a halftime meal.
In fact, I did so twice over the last few months! My first crack at 20 miles (which sadly only went 19.45 due to a miscalc) had a halftime where I stopped in Edgewater for food and drink at Whole Foods. And last month I stopped at a hot dog stand near Navy Pier during the back end a 17 miler, treating myself to a hot dog and some Powerade. Hit the spot.
Not eating at all
This is what I do most often! This is what most people do for most runs. You don’t worry about fuel, and just do the damn run. For most runs this is totally fine. Even for most longer runs this is totally fine. To do the longest runs this way can be challenging, and can also be rewarding training depending on goals for the run (e.g. running to deplete your glycogen stores to practice running in that state).
Advantages: Not worrying about fuel makes long workouts a lot simpler. I won’t have to worry about timing fuel intake or other distractions. I also train my body to handle glycogen depletion on longer runs, which better prepares me to handle key late points in races such as the marathon.
Disadvantages: If I’m training for a marathon, practicing fueling is valuable and this could be a lost opportunity to either practice or experiment with fueling in-race. Based on the length of the run, I could bonk during the run, perhaps increase the likelihood of injury, illness or some other setback. Not fueling could also compromise performance on some longer runs (maybe I want to practice some tempo segments), which depending on my goals could be an issue.
Verdict: If it’s not a race or a dangerously long distance, running without fuel is the way to go. If it’s very long or I need to practice marathon fueling, then I really should bring some fuel.